Update on crapymyrtle bark scale. Encrustations of scale insects remain on a plant long after the insect has died, so it can be helpful to scrape some scales to determine if they are still living. Although this alone will not control an infestation, it can physically remove many female scales and egg masses, making the chemical treatment more effective (Gu et al. We addressed the crape myrtle bark scale in this column last year, but some of the recommendations made by OSU regarding control have changed. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is not deadly to most crape myrtles, but can affect the quality of the plants and greatly the health and longevity in the landscape, according to Haase. Life cycle of the crapemyrtle bark scale. Activity resumes early in the spring, and the number of crawlers seems to peak around the beginning of summer, and again in late summer (Robbins et al. Plant removal and chemical control are the most effective ways to do this. Contact Us Oklahoma County OSU Extension Center 2500 NE 63rd St. Oklahoma City, OK 73111 In addition, biological control will not eradicate an invasive population. Based on urban tree inventories of several major cities in the southeastern U.S., crapemyrtle are among the most common landscape trees planted in this region. As mentioned earlier, the best way to maintain a Crapemyrtles size is to plant a known cultivar that will mature at the desired height. It's easy to spot. 2016) However, despite the predation by these and other lady beetle species, their control often comes too late in the season to prevent damage from the scales and sooty mold (Gu et al. Studies show that some common pesticides (e.g., pyrethroids) cause scale populations to increase. Mechanical control: Prior to treatment of heavily infested plants, it can be helpful to wash the reachable branches with a mild soap solution and a soft scrubbing brush. Managing Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants 2014). When crushed, these scales exude pink âbloodâ-like liquid. 2014, Layton 2015). Once the mated females produce their ovisacs (egg-containing capsules) and lay eggs, they die. If an infested plant is found in a new area, it may be appropriate to destroy the plant rather than attempt treatment. Bark Scale along the branch of a Crape Myrtle. }�L@�%�]��H�?��G� �l endstream endobj startxref Photograph by Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas CES, Bugwood.org. Photograph by Gary Brooks, Bayer Crop Science, Bugwood.org. Because crapemyrtle bark scale is not yet established in Florida, any discovered populations should be eradicated as soon as possible. Figure 11. However, it is not yet clear what role this plant may play in the spread of crapemyrtle bark scale. 2014, Robbins et al. The current chemical recommendations may be extremely toxic to bees and other pollinators that feed on crapemyrtle pollen. So far, no cultivars of crapemyrtle are known to have high levels of resistance to the scale. Photograph by Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas, CES, Bugwood.org. Callicarpa americana, however, is native to the United States. Oklahoma, T ennessee, T exas and Virginia (Figure 2). As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as âhoneydewâ (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects). Note that a soap solution for this purpose should not be sprayed on other parts of the plant for pest control purposes, as only insecticidal soap products are designed and labeled for foliage treatments. Prospective volunteers must fill make a profile on ok.4honline.com and complete a background check issued by Oklahoma County 4-H. ; Information is then requested from three references provided by the potential volunteer (preferably one personal character, one work-related, and one family member). Vafaie EK., and Knight CM. Long, cool autumns yield the best leaf display; sudden frosts following warm, humid fall weather often freeze leaves while theyre still green, ruining the show. 2018, Wang et al. The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae(Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. A mass of pink eggs may be seen if the white covering is pulled away (Robbins et al. Other nymphs form a white, felt-like sac and develop into prepupa and then to pupa further inside, eventually pupating to emerge as tiny, winged adult males (alates). Be careful not to make an infestation worse by applying pesticides that have not been recommended by authorities. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to identify. 2017. Imports of crapemyrtle to these areas should be inspected carefully. 2015, Wang et al. 2015. Robbins J, Hopkins J, Merchant M, Gu M. 2014. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana). h�bbd```b``� �3@$�V�6�.�l`�1X�C0�"Y��li0�&����`� �QDrE�٦ rF�d,� b�N��M�L�ρՈ�? After the first molt, nymphs lose their legs and become sessile, settling in-place to feed and grow (Wang et al. First detected in northern Texas in 2004, CMBS is spreading throughout much of the southern U.S. Thâ¦ Crape myrtle bark scale is a relatively recent pest that is affecting crepe myrtle trees in a growing area across the southeastern United States. Look-alike species. The crape myrtle bark scale, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, is a newly introduced insect pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia spp. Vol. Wang Z, Chen Y, Gu M, Vafaie E, Merchant M, Diaz R. 2016. 254 0 obj <>stream Nymphs that hatch from the eggs (a) are highly mobile and are called “crawlers” (b). Available online: https://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/ 2012/Online_Resources/Census_of_Horticulture_Specialties/ (5 May 2018). Nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew, a sugary, sticky excrement, which accumulates on any surfaces beneath where the insects feed. Applications should not be made if the tree is in flower, and all pollinator protection requirements on the label must be followed to minimize risk. 2014). Crepe Myrtle Bark Scale. The females (d-f) do not enter the pre-pupal stage, and start producing eggs following mating with the male. The adult female is usually about 2 mm long and has a distinctive gray-white, felt-like covering. Photograph by Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org. Dead scales are dry and flakey, but live crapemyrtle bark scales exude a ruby pink color when crushed. 2018. Please refer to the crapemyrtle bark scale EDIS publication (UF/IFAS EDIS) for current management recommendation in Florida, or consult your local UF/IFAS Extension Service office. Life cycle by April Martin and Xavier Martini, University of Florida. This can be a difficult pest to control and it may take mâ¦ A&M has identified this pest as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, and suspects that it was brought into the U.S. on a crape myrtle plant. The IAS crape myrtle bark scale was first detected in Texas in 2004 and is now found in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. Using this information, north Florida is at a moderate to high risk of becoming infested (Wang et al. 2017. 2014, Layton 2015). Based on regional climates in the U.S., scientists have generated predictions of where this insect may spread. They actively search for adult females. 237 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8AAF0346A0485049BE474FD0E5DE3241>]/Index[212 43]/Info 211 0 R/Length 120/Prev 872263/Root 213 0 R/Size 255/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Thousands of scales encrusting the bark will literally turn it white. Chen Y, Merchant M, Vafaie E, Gu M, Robbins J. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society. Scientists were unsure if a nearly identical species, the azalea bark scale, had begun attacking a new host plant or if this was a newly introduced species. When scouting large trees, it is important to look not just at the trunk and lower branches. Look for injuries or pruning wounds on the trunk and branches, as scale infestations often start at these sites. However, the appearance of white scale bodies on bark and the pink liquid associated with crushed scales are diagnostic characteristics of CMBS. Crapemyrtle bark scale. Biology and potential impacts of the emerging pest, crapemyrtle bark scale. The insect was first noted in McKinney, Texas (self-designated as Americaâs âcrapemyrtle cityâ), in 2005 and had spread throughout most of the Dallas-Fort Worth area by â¦ The azalea bark scale is in the same genus (Acanthococcus) as crapemyrtle bark scale and appears virtually identical. Since 2013, in the city of Germantown, there has been a suspicious decrease in the health and appearance of one of the Southâs ubiquitous flowering tree species, the crepe myrtle. It is unknown how the scale life cycle might adapt in Florida, and more research on the life cycle is in progress to see if there is a predictable pattern. If you find crapemyrtle bark scale in an area not yet reported, specimens must first be confirmed by the FDACS Department of Plant Industry (DPI) so that they can publish a first report and take any necessary regulatory actions. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) insect has been found in Fauquier. Under - magnif ication, adult females are pink and measure about 2 Prevention of spread: Human-assisted, long distance movement of plant material via the nursery and landscape trades is most likely how this species becomes established in new regions. Crapemyrtles of Florida (Lagerstroemia indica and hybrids). Leaves coated in sooty mold photosynthesize less, which may translate to reduced tree growth (Layton 2015, Wang et al. As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Any stage of the scale can overwinter, especially the nymphs, which can be found nearly year-round. Photograph by Erfan Vafaie, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. 29 This honeydew, in tâ¦ 2016). In the United States, crapemyrtle bark scale has only been found feeding on crapemyrtles, (Myrtales: Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia spp.) Much research is needed before cultivar or hybrid selection can be incorporated into management plans. That pest is called crape myrtle bark scale, or CMBS for short. Photograph by Michael Merchant, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Bugwood.org. Buy from reputable nurseries who are knowledgeable about crapemyrtle bark scale and inspect outgoing plants (Robbins et al. Comparison of normal blossoms (top row) and damaged blossoms (bottom row) caused by crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana). BILL SEVIER/For the Tulsa World. Crape myrtle flowers do not have nectar, but their âfeeder pollensâ are â¦ Identification of crapemyrtle bark scale is relatively simple because this is the first and only bark scale known to feed on crapemyrtle in the United States. The most effective of these seem to be twice-stabbed lady beetles, such as Chilocorus stigma and Chilocorus cacti (Cai et al. Figure 2. On old growth, the scale insects may be aggregated around pruning wounds or branch crotches, whereas distribution is typically more uniform on new growth where the small, pink juveniles (called crawlers) have recently spread and established. Gu M, Merchant M, Robbins J, Hopkins J. Since then, it spread rapidly. 2014. Photographs by Gary Knox and Ed Gilman, University of Florida. Bark scale originates from China and was brought to the U.S. in 2010. As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Heavy infestations are easily seen due to abundant black sooty mold and patches of the white or gray scales on the trunk, branches, and twigs of crapemyrtle. This scale lives and thrives on crape myrtle, suggesting a different identity for it. I should note that crape myrtle aphids also produce honeydew so this alone is not an indication that the scale is present. This will give the plant a more uniform appearance. He was born March 3, 1979, at Ada, Oklahoma to Davidâ¦ WILLIAMS, Leota Feb 10, 1938 - Dec 17, 2020 2015, Wang et al. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Resources - Layton, B. Because crapemyrtle is one of the only summer-blooming trees in the landscape, reduction in flower quality and longevity due to heavy infestations is also concerning (Cai et al. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Resource Website (StopCMBS) 2014). Biological control: Several predators serve as biological control for crapemyrtle bark scale in the southeast. Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), bleeds pink when damaged. Local dispersal is likely a combination of the tiny nymphs walking, by wind blowing crawlers to new plants, by human activities, and by bird and mammal movement between trees (Merchant et al. Ants have been observed on many trees with crapemyrtle bark scale infestations, but it is not known how they interact. To keep a crape myrtle at a manageable height, prune moderately by removing all twiggy growth back to main branch from which it emerged. 212 0 obj <> endobj doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. The most likely culprit is a scale insect found in China, Japan, and Korea. Observations from McKinney, Texas suggest that Lagerstroemia fauriei and Lagerstroemia indica x Lagerstroemia fauriei hybrids also suffer high infestations (Gu et al. crape myrtle has never before been report-ed as a host plant for azalea bark scale. As of early 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale has not yet been reported in Florida, however, it has been found in Alabama and Georgia and is expected eventually to spread into Florida. This species was formerly known as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, so this name may be found in many publications. UF/IFAS Extension: Crapemyrtle Publications, https://www.eddmaps.org/cmbs/distribution.cfm, Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Resource Website (StopCMBS), Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS), Department of Plant Industry (DPI) Sample Submission, Managing Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants, UF/IFAS Extension: Crapemyrtle Publications, Crape myrtle bark scale management updates, Crape myrtle bark scale: A new exotic pest, EHT-049, Crape Myrtle Bark Scale Identification and Control, Publication 2938, Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: A New Insect Pest, FSA7086. Additional research on crape myrtle phenology, which is the timing of bud break, first bloom and full bloom, if proven to be correlated to scale activities, will also help time the application on crawlers. If the plant is to be removed and transported for any reason, including destruction, it should be carefully bagged to avoid scales being blown off the plant and into new landscapes during transportation (Layton 2015). Native to Asia, the crape scale bark scale first was reported in the United States during 2004 on crape myrtles in a landscape plant nursery in Richardson, Texas (Dallas County). Azalea bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) azalea (Comstock), is another felt scale in North America, but does not feed on crapemyrtle. 1140: 415Â-418. Chemical control: Because crapemyrtle bark scale is not yet found in Florida, any discovered populations should be eradicated as soon as possible to slow further spread within the state. Borden MA, Dale AG. The scale is a sucking insect that feeds on the phloem (sap) of plants. 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